September 15, 2008

Musings on John McCain’s Facebook Page [7:59 am]

Asking the natural question: Facebook Politics?

Nonetheless, she persists, and the (presumably) American posters take great pleasure in teaching her the ropes of speedy American political debate, even as they wonder what she’s doing on this particular wall.

In fact, that question seems to haunt the whole crowd. What are we doing here? Clearly, it could go either way. What they’re doing on John McCain’s Facebook page — debating, joking, cooking up homemade propaganda about war, poverty, taxation, sexuality, immigration, religion — is, depending on who’s talking and what day it is, either just another online waste of time or the most important thing they’ve ever done in their lives.

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How Convenient! [7:32 am]

In Digital Age, Federal Files Blip Into Oblivion

Federal agencies have rushed to embrace the Internet and new information technology, but their record-keeping efforts lag far behind. Moreover, federal investigators have found widespread violations of federal record-keeping requirements.

Many federal officials admit to a haphazard approach to preserving e-mail and other electronic records of their work. Indeed, many say they are unsure what materials they are supposed to preserve.

This confusion is causing alarm among historians, archivists, librarians, Congressional investigators and watchdog groups that want to trace the decision-making process and hold federal officials accountable. With the imminent change in administrations, the concern about lost records has become more acute.

[...] When President Bill Clinton left office, the National Archives preserved snapshots of agency Web sites as they existed on or just before Jan. 20, 2001. The Archives decided recently that it would not take such snapshots at the end of the Bush administration. “Most Web records do not warrant permanent retention,” because they do not have “long-term historical value,” the Archives said.

Many historians disagree. Several university libraries and the Internet Archive, a nonprofit digital library based in San Francisco, are starting to do what the federal government refuses to do: copy government Web sites, so they remain available after Mr. Bush leaves office.

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More On Textbooks [7:31 am]

Don’t Buy That Textbook, Download It Free

In protest of what he says are textbooks’ intolerably high prices — and the dumbing down of their content to appeal to the widest possible market — Professor McAfee has put his introductory economics textbook online free. He says he most likely could have earned a $100,000 advance on the book had he gone the traditional publishing route, and it would have had a list price approaching $200.

“This market is not working very well — except for the shareholders in the textbook publishers,” he said. “We have lots of knowledge, but we are not getting it out.”

See earlier The Open Source Text

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September 14, 2008

A Cautionary Tale? Or Planting A Meme? [12:12 pm]

Stuck in Google’s Doghouse

When he pressed Google to explain why the changes hadn’t helped, he said, the company gave him the brushoff.

“Your landing pages will continue to require higher bids in order to display your ads, resulting in a very low return on your investment,” a Google executive named Nathan Anderson wrote on Jan. 2, 2007. “Therefore AdWords may not be the online advertising program for you.”

Two days later, in another e-mail message, Mr. Anderson told Mr. Savage to “please refrain from repeatedly contacting our team.”

As he stewed about his predicament, Mr. Savage came to believe that there was something more nefarious going on than a subpar landing page. [...]

In the three months since the Google-Yahoo deal was announced, there is very little doubt that the Justice Department is seriously examining whether to block it. As you may recall, the deal was not a merger, but rather a cooperation agreement. Still, it would give the two companies a staggering 90 percent of the search advertising market, a market share figure so high that even the notoriously lax Bush antitrust department can’t look the other way.

[...] But it is also true that people like Mr. Savage, who are demonstrably not bad guys, find themselves in Google’s doghouse and then can’t even get the company to respond to them. Is it any wonder that they feel treated unfairly by a ruthless monopolist? What makes it worse is that Google simply refuses to acknowledge that its algorithms could ever be wrong. Could Google really treat its own customers so shabbily if it faced true competition?

See also Ads That Built Google Could Now Pose Test (pdf)

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September 12, 2008

A Review of Laptop-Based Music Performances [7:04 am]

Re-start — The New Yorker (pdf)

An act that embodies many of the complications of the laptop’s role is Girl Talk, the stage name of Gregg Gillis, who performs with nothing but a laptop onstage and uses only loops and samples from other people’s songs, most of them well known. Girl Talk tracks combine Southern rap with Radiohead songs, Lil Wayne with the Red Hot Chili Peppers, and have proved popular both live and on the Internet. The live draw is perhaps not surprising. To flesh out the experience of watching a guy working on a computer, Gillis leaps about, invites fans to dance onstage, and often ends shows wearing just his boxers. To protect his Panasonic Toughbook, Gillis covers it in Saran Wrap and uses a mouse rather than the track pad. (“My hands just get too sweaty,” he explained to me.)

[...] Several decades ago, Gillis might have been playing at clubs like Danceteria or the World, where the d.j. booth was not necessarily visible from the dance floor and the space had no obvious front or back. The music floated above and around the dancers, who were both witnesses and performers. But, as dance clubs have dwindled in number, acts like Girl Talk are generally playing rock clubs that have traditional stages, and this demands some kind of visual. Gillis is happy to comply, and his open-ended act and communal free-for-all certainly constitutes a live performance. It is ironic, then, that Gillis is so hands on in executing his mixes. If there was ever somebody who could simply hit “Play” and bounce around, it is Gillis. With some version of the Girl Talk mashup coming from the speakers and Gillis jumping out of his pants, most concertgoers would feel as though they had got what they paid for. There is no longer any way of telling whether or not the Wizard is behind the curtain. Does it matter?

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September 11, 2008

“Lipstick” and Copyright [1:33 pm]

The practical problems of fair use: This lipstick just won’t fade (pdf)

To buttress its argument, the McCain campaign used footage in its ad from a Web commentary Couric did this year on about the media’s coverage of Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton. “One of the great lessons of that campaign is the continued and accepted role of sexism in American life,” Couric said.

By midday Wednesday, viewers looking for the ad on YouTube instead got the message: “This video is no longer available due to a copyright claim by CBS Interactive Inc.”

In a statement, the network said that “CBS News does not endorse any candidate in the presidential race.”

McCain spokesman Brian Rogers said the campaign thought the Couric footage was allowable under the fair-use exception to copyright laws.

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OT: We’re Done [7:09 am]

That’s it. The campaign is over. We’re just waiting to get the vote count now.

No more discussion of issues. No more consideration of what America can and should be.

Nope. It’s all personalities now. Slurs. Slams. Making mountains out of molehills.

It *is* like an election for class president in the 5th grade. The teachers kept telling us “You should vote on the basis of the candidates’ issues and proposals,” but everyone knew that the whole thing was a popularity contest.

Of course, in the 5th grade, the teachers were there to ensure that the discussion *was* about the issues. Any effort to make the election about personalities was squashed.

Of course, that didn’t matter in the end. It was still a personality contest. But we at least got a lesson about what adults did when they held their elections, for positions that really mattered.

Real responsibilities: “to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity.” Like that. Important work, for serious people.

How naive.

I miss the 5th grade.

Links to pdfs: Campaign shocks! The Outrage Machine is on a roll; McCain Camp Hits Obama On More Than One Front; Civility is casualty as campaigns spar; Anti-Obama ‘The One’ ad goes funny, not negative, McCain says

Roger Cohen is even more heartick about this than I. His op-ed today (to which I linked above) is a stunner: In The Seventh Year:

And, lo, a strange thing did come to pass. For as surely as the seasons do alternate, so the ruler and party that have brought woe to a nation must give way to others who can lead their people to plenty. How can the weary, flogged ass bear honey and balm and almonds and myrrh?

Yet many Americans believed the exhausted beast could still provide bounty. They did hold that a people called the French was to blame. They did accuse a creation called the United Nations. They did curse the ungodly sophisticates of Gotham and Hollywood and sinful Chicago; and, lo, they proclaimed God was on their side, and carried a gun, and Darwin was bunk, and truth resided in Alaska.

For Bush ruled over the whole nation and so sure was he of his righteousness that he did foster division until it raged like a plague. Each tribe sent pestilence on the other.

And in the seventh year after the fall, the dust and debris of the towers cleared. And it became plain at last what had been wrought — but not how the damage would be undone.

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September 9, 2008

Google Announces Changes In Its Log Retention Policies [12:35 pm]

Another step to protect user privacy

Today, we’re announcing a new logs retention policy: we’ll anonymize IP addresses on our server logs after 9 months. We’re significantly shortening our previous 18-month retention policy to address regulatory concerns and to take another step to improve privacy for our users.

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Alex Beam on Textbook “Piracy” [7:47 am]

A textbook case of piracy (pdf)

I was heartened to learn that college kids are wielding the same Internet piracy tools they used to bring down the recording industry to download textbooks. Although the textbook oligopolists are fighting back mightily - the Association of American Publishers uses Covington & Burling, a take-no-prisoners law firm in Washington, D.C., to hunt down malefactors - there are at least two sites still around offering books: Textbook Torrents tends to be shut down, and moves around the Web, but the last time I checked, was offering such books as - well, youll see.

As a writer, how can I support this? I should be an absolutist on copyright protection for all books, magazines, and newspapers. But Im not. The publishers have disgraced themselves, and they are paying the price. Three-hundred-dollar textbooks in the hard sciences are not unusual, and the companies are selling to a captive audience. Hundred-dollar add-ons, masquerading as digital workbooks, or problem-solving sets, are not uncommon.

Publishers love to put out bogus “new” editions to drive a stake though the heart of the used textbook market, which was gaining its second wind at online auction sites. [...]

I don’t really recall what Mr. Beam’s early take on Napster was (or if he had one at all), but it’s interesting to note the common elements of these apologies for “piracy”: an industry that exploits its control over distribution to extract profits; the rise of a technology that upsets that chokehold on distribution; a (perceived) lack of innovation in content and/or delivery; and an expectation that, in the end, the content will still be available among the wreckage of the old business model — capitalism’s creative destruction at its finest, coupled with a certain joy from participating in the wreckage.

Which is not to say that it’s a bad thing; it is, after all, what got us to where we are today. But, while it’s certain that textbooks will survive this, and the profits of the textbook companies will not, there is the question of whether this is a model that applies everywhere. In particular, what about the news media, and the print media in general? Google’s announced plan (Google to Digitize Newspaper Archives) looks like it should be a plus for this struggling industry, but the fact that it continues to drain the advertising revenue upon which these firms are founded means that it remains problematic whether there’s going to be a continuing source of material to be archived in the future.

At what point do the “new media” come to recognize that their business models will necessarily depend upon shoring up the old media? And will they come up with a successful approach in time — i.e., before the two sides are so intransigently positioned that they all elect to go down in flames instead?

Later, this related article: Times Will Shut Down Its Distribution Subsidiary and this: Google Strikes Partnership With NBC to Expand in TV Advertising

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September 8, 2008

Rowling Wins A Round [8:57 pm]

Rowling wins book copyright claim

Author JK Rowling has won her legal battle in a New York court to get an unofficial Harry Potter encyclopaedia banned from publication.

Judge Robert Patterson said in a ruling Ms Rowling, 43, had proven Steven Vander Arks Harry Potter Lexicon would cause her irreparable harm as a writer.

[...] Making his ruling, Judge Patterson said reference materials could help readers, but Vander Ark had gone too far in this case.

He said: “While the Lexicon, in its current state, is not a fair use of the Harry Potter works, reference works that share the Lexicon’s purpose of aiding readers of literature generally should be encouraged rather than stifled.”

He said he had made his decision because: “Lexicon appropriates too much of Rowling’s creative work for its purposes as a reference guide”.

Later: Rowling Wins Lawsuit Against Potter Lexicon

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How Could This Possibly Be A Bad Idea? [8:29 am]

I mean, seriously — who’s ever suggested that a military weapon has ended up being misused by those who developed it in the first place? Pentagon debates development of offensive cyberspace capabilities (pdf)

Igniting a provocative new debate, senior military officials are pushing the Pentagon to go on the offensive in cyberspace by developing the ability to attack other nations’ computer systems, rather than concentrating on defending America’s electronic security.

Under the most sweeping proposals, military experts would acquire the know-how to commandeer the unmanned aerial drones of adversaries, disable enemy warplanes in mid-flight and cut off electricity at precise moments to strategic locations, such as military installations, while sparing humanitarian facilities, such as hospitals.

An expansion of offensive capabilities in cyberspace would represent an important change for the military. For years, U.S. officials have been reluctant to militarize what is widely seen as a medium for commerce and communication — much like space.

But a new National Military Strategy for Cyberspace Operations, declassified earlier this year, fueled the Pentagon debate and gave the military a green light to push for expanded capabilities.

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Datapoint: The Music Business Model [7:55 am]

Jersey - Still Strumming and Rocking After All These Years

It’s a powerful dream that has lured many, but eluded most: to earn your keep in life with nothing but your guitar. It’s what brought Mr. Hector south from his hometown of Orange in 1977, when he joined the Shots, the house band at the Stone Pony; what drove him through the string of other bands in the 1980s and ’90s that almost, but never quite, broke out of the local club scene; and what sustains him still, 14 albums and more than 7,000 gigs later.

“I need to play music — it’s that simple,” said Mr. Hector, whose last regular paycheck was as an equipment tester at a guitar factory in Neptune Township in the early ’80s. “It’s like a calling. My life really hasn’t changed since I was 24. It’s the same goal.”

What has changed, though, is the music business. Record companies, their sales declining, have been paring their rosters, not adding to them, leading more musicians to the conclusion that Mr. Hector reached long ago: that sometimes it’s better to put out your own recordings, and sell them yourself to loyal fans, 3,000 of whom are on his mailing list.

Related: Singing The Blues At Record Stores (pdf)

According to Almighty Music Marketing, approximately 1,400 independent record stores have closed since 2003, leaving 2,300 open nationwide and 25 open in the Washington region. In 2003, 16 independent record stores were open for business in the District; only nine remain.

Thirty-year-old Orpheus Music in Arlington is next on the chopping block. When the store’s lease expired last March, the building broke with Richard Carlisle, Orpheus’s owner, so that a higher-bidding bar could move in. “My business was doing all right until this whole lease thing happened,” Carlisle said. But, he added, “You’ve got to be a niche store to survive anymore. It’s got to be totally indie, or vinyl, or have some clothes.”

Carlisle didn’t leverage the Internet to bolster sales. Conversely, Bill Daly, owner of Crooked Beat in Adams Morgan, realized early on that he needed an Internet operation to maintain a lucrative business. Daly has been doing mail-order sales online since 1998. “Everything in the store is in the process of being listed,” he said. “I have people hired who just come in and do stuff on eBay.”

While the store has already eliminated two CD racks and plans to lose a third, Daly says he sometimes earns three times the market value for items he posts online. The Internet has also expanded his customer base. He has sold vinyl records through eBay to customers in Sweden, France, Canada, the Netherlands, Australia, California and Nevada.

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The Evolving eReader Market [7:49 am]

And the issues surrounding their business models — from an article on a new product to be released by PLatic Logic today: New E-Newspaper Reader Echoes Look of the Paper

With electronic readers, publishers would also learn more about its readers. With paper copy subscriptions, newspapers know what address has received a copy and not much else. About those customers picking up a copy on the newsstand, they know nothing.

As an electronic device, newspapers can determine who is reading their paper, and even which articles are being read. Advertisers would be able to understand their audience and direct advertising to its likeliest customers.

While this raises privacy concerns, “these are future possibilities which we will explore,” said Hans Brons, chief executive of iRex Technologies in Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

Google, etc. has trained the advertising market to want these “eyeball” metrics, and print is suffering because it can’t really deliver them. So, the technologies will be shaped around delivering these metrics, and we’ll avoid deciding whether they are worth anything — and particularly whether they are worth sacrificing privacy for.

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What *Is* Reality? [7:18 am]

An instant reply system that, in fact, is only something like one — technological alienation/mediation enters yet another domain: Hawk-Eye Replay System a Hit at the U.S. Open

Overseeing it all is Paul Hawkins, the thin, sandy-haired, 30-something Englishman who had the crazy idea a few years ago to do for tennis what no other professional sport seems to have managed: create an instant-replay system that works.

“I have a technology background,” said Hawkins, who holds a doctorate in artificial intelligence. “I love sports. So I kind of had an opportunity to combine my two passions.”

The result was Hawk-Eye, probably the most successful instant-replay system in sports. Since its introduction at the United States Open three years ago, Hawk-Eye has won over fans, players and even officials.

[...] The big breakthrough, Hawkins said, was not relying on optical devices to determine where a given shot lands — a surprisingly difficult spot to measure accurately. Hawk-Eye uses a system of 10 cameras to track the speed and trajectory of a ball in flight, but that is only part of the magic. The rest is done exclusively through computer modeling.

Because no tennis court is exactly flat and no line precisely straight, before the tournament. Hawkins’s team takes thousands of precise measurements of the dimensions and contours of each court, which are then converted into a three-dimensional computer model. Hawk-Eye’s virtual world takes into account other real-world factors that can affect accuracy, like the amount a ball compresses when it hits the court and even the temperature of the court.

“During warm days, the court actually changes size as it heats up or cools down,” Hawkins said.

When the ball flight data is fed into the computer model, the result is a system that is so precise it’s difficult to measure.

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Kicking and Screaming, Fashion Moves Forward [7:11 am]

With or without copyright protection, it’s evolve or die. Here’s another way: Designers of High Fashion Enter the Age of High Tech

After dragging their stilettos for years, fashion designers are starting to embrace online tools. Fashion cycles are faster, and designers want help scoping out competitors’ designs, discovering trends, experimenting with colors and fabrics and mocking up designs. Trend forecasting publications, which designers have relied on for four decades to scout new trends, are trying to bolster their own businesses by offering Web sites with real-time video and photos, downloadable sketches and prints, and collaboration and design tools.

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Real Ready To Start A Fight [7:06 am]

RealNetworks to Introduce a DVD Copier

Since the DVD format was introduced more than a decade ago, Hollywood has unremittingly sought to protect the DVD from the fate that befell the CD, which has no mechanism to prevent copying.

[...] To stave off this outcome and protect what is now $16 billion in annual DVD sales, studios and consumer electronics companies have enveloped their discs with encryption that is intended to prevent copying.

They also regularly go to court to fight any company that offers software to break the encryption. More than five years ago, several studios and the Motion Picture Association of America sued 321 Studios, a company in St. Louis, that had sold the popular program DVD X Copy. A judge ruled that the software violated the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, and the company closed in 2004.

[...] Now RealNetworks believes that the industry’s legal stranglehold on DVD copying has begun to weaken. In March 2007, the DVD Copy Control Association, an alliance that licenses the encryption for DVDs, lost a lawsuit against Kaleidescape, a Silicon Valley start-up company that sells a $10,000 computer server that makes and stores digital copies of up to 500 films.

The DVD association has appealed the ruling. But Mr. Glaser thinks the decision has created the framework for a legal DVD copying product with built-in restrictions to prevent piracy.

See the EFF digital video archive for all the action

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September 5, 2008

Leaning Into The Punch [2:17 pm]

An exploration of what you get, and what you lose, when you decide to play the game: Magazine Preview - I’m So Totally, Digitally Close to You

This is the paradox of ambient awareness. Each little update — each individual bit of social information — is insignificant on its own, even supremely mundane. But taken together, over time, the little snippets coalesce into a surprisingly sophisticated portrait of your friends’ and family members’ lives, like thousands of dots making a pointillist painting. This was never before possible, because in the real world, no friend would bother to call you up and detail the sandwiches she was eating. The ambient information becomes like “a type of E.S.P.,” as Haley described it to me, an invisible dimension floating over everyday life.

“It’s like I can distantly read everyone’s mind,” Haley went on to say. “I love that. I feel like I’m getting to something raw about my friends. It’s like I’ve got this heads-up display for them.” It can also lead to more real-life contact, because when one member of Haley’s group decides to go out to a bar or see a band and Twitters about his plans, the others see it, and some decide to drop by — ad hoc, self-organizing socializing. And when they do socialize face to face, it feels oddly as if they’ve never actually been apart. They don’t need to ask, “So, what have you been up to?” because they already know. Instead, they’ll begin discussing something that one of the friends Twittered that afternoon, as if picking up a conversation in the middle.

Facebook and Twitter may have pushed things into overdrive, but the idea of using communication tools as a form of “co-presence” has been around for a while. [...]

[...] Online awareness inevitably leads to a curious question: What sort of relationships are these? What does it mean to have hundreds of “friends” on Facebook? What kind of friends are they, anyway?

[...] “If anything, it’s identity-constraining now,” Tufekci told me. “You can’t play with your identity if your audience is always checking up on you. I had a student who posted that she was downloading some Pearl Jam, and someone wrote on her wall, ‘Oh, right, ha-ha — I know you, and you’re not into that.’ ” She laughed. “You know that old cartoon? ‘On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog’? On the Internet today, everybody knows you’re a dog! If you don’t want people to know you’re a dog, you’d better stay away from a keyboard.”

Or, as Leisa Reichelt, a consultant in London who writes regularly about ambient tools, put it to me: “Can you imagine a Facebook for children in kindergarten, and they never lose touch with those kids for the rest of their lives? What’s that going to do to them?” Young people today are already developing an attitude toward their privacy that is simultaneously vigilant and laissez-faire. They curate their online personas as carefully as possible, knowing that everyone is watching — but they have also learned to shrug and accept the limits of what they can control.

It is easy to become unsettled by privacy-eroding aspects of awareness tools. But there is another — quite different — result of all this incessant updating: a culture of people who know much more about themselves. [...]

A new name for dataveillance, eh? “Ambient awareness,” indeed.

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The Campaigns and © [11:59 am]

Or, at least performance rights — but, they probably are paying the compulsory licenses, so the complaints are just that. Exclusive: Heart’s Nancy Wilson responds to McCain campaign’s use of ‘Barracuda’ at Republican convention (pdf)

Thursday afternoon, Heart e-mailed out a statement regarding vice-presidential candidate Sarah “Barracuda” Palin’s use of their similarly monikered song at the Republican National Convention: “The Republican campaign did not ask for permission to use the song, nor would they have been granted that permission,” it read. “We have asked the Republican campaign publicly not to use our music. We hope our wishes will be honored.”

See also: ‘Only in America’ could Obama borrow the GOP’s favorite Brooks & Dunn song (pdf)

Later: as expected — ‘Barracuda’ Belongs to the Rock Group Heart (pdf)

“The McCain campaign respects intellectual-property rights,” Brian Rogers, a campaign spokesman said. “Accordingly, prior to using ‘Barracuda’ at any events, we paid for and obtained all necessary licenses.”

See also: Will McCain’s Heart Stop? Whether the Campaign Needs Permission to Play “Barracuda”

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The Joys of Being Chattel [11:14 am]

Life as a child in the age of dataveillance — becoming acculturated to 24-7 “helicopter parenting:” Online tools let parents peer into their kids’ school day (pdf)

It’s tough sending little Bobby or Suzy back to school. Parents may worry what kinds of teachers their children will encounter, whether they’ll be as smart as their classmates and whether bullies will steal their lunch money.

But technology is helping eliminate some of the guesswork about what happens after kids climb onto the bus. Increasingly common Web programs let parents track lunch-money spending, schoolwork habits and tardiness.

“There’s this black box — a child goes away and comes home, what happened during this time?” said Shelley Pasnik, director of the nonprofit Center for Children and Technology in New York. “Now, new information and communications technology allows for the mystery of what transpires on any given day to unravel.”

[...] “This isn’t surveillance software,” [Brent Bingham, vice president of product marketing at Pearson School Systems, ] said. “Parents are really interested in the benefits that come with timely communication.”

And, to tie to a related current narrative, see: Bristol’s Body, Sarah’s Choice: Abortion, Teen Motherhood, and Parental Authority in Slate — also Bristol’s Choice: Republicans and the Illusion of Reproductive Choice

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Okaloosa County’s Plan Gets an NYT Editorial Comment [8:22 am]

A rather scathing piece on the Operation Bravo plan for this Florida county: Editorial - A Bad Experiment in Voting - Editorial -

The words “Florida” and “Internet voting,” taken together, should send a chill down everyone’s spine. Nevertheless, Florida’s Okaloosa County is seeking permission from the state to allow members of the military to vote over the Internet in November.

[...] The problem is that too little is known about precisely how the system would work. For Internet voting to be trustworthy, it must be clear that there is no way for a hacker to break in and voters must have complete confidence in the software being used. Okaloosa has not persuasively made that case.

The county has asked a group of academics to review the reliability of its system, but their report has not yet been made public — and may not be until after the election.

See also Florida Internet Voting Plan Is Illegal and Marred by Conflict of Interest Says Critic

Also VoteTrustUSA’s site, which got me to’s position piece: Florida Voters Urge Secretary Browning to Kill Internet Voting Scheme and their latest missive, 9 July 2008 letter to Kurt S. Browning, Secretary of State

Here’s the FSU lab that’s part of the assessment team — albeit a “partner” of Operation Bravo: SAIT Laboratory and Electronic Voting Systems Security

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